Each year, about 20,000 gray whales make an epic 6,000-mile/9,656-km journey between Alaska and Mexico—and then back again. These whales travel from feeding grounds in the Bering Sea to mating and breeding lagoons along Baja California in Mexico. It’s one of the most amazing wildlife migrations on the planet, and also relatively easy for humans to witness, especially if you join a guided whale-watching cruise with knowledgeable crew on board. (In some locations, you can see whales spouting, breaching, and fluking from ocean bluffs, especially if you have binoculars.) While gray whales are get the spotlight along the California coast, other cetaceans—including orcas, humpbacks, porpoises, dolphins, and gigantic blue whales—ply the waters at different times of year, bumping up your chances of seeing something amazing out there in the sea.
While Santa Cruz gets thumbs-up for its hang-loose surf scene, oceanfront amusement park, flawless beach, and classic wooden pier, there’s another giant treasure lurking just beneath the surface. Migratory whales, including grays, blues, and humpbacks, can all be spied off the coast here at different times of year, and dolphins, sea otters, and seals are observed year round. See for yourself on exciting whale-watching cruises, chartered sailing excursions, or—for staggeringly intimate encounters—on guided kayak paddles when waters are calm.
What makes Santa Cruz such a prime spot for whale watching? According to Gary Griggs, director of the Institute of Marine Sciences at U.C. Santa Cruz, the town’s location on the northern end of Monterey Bay puts it on the edge of some of whales’ favourite undersea dining rooms. “The whales are here feeding on sardines, anchovies, and plankton, which have been attracted by blooms of microscopic plants such as diatoms,” explains Dr. Griggs. What’s more, Monterey Bay’s unique geology produces an area of relatively calm bay waters, where, according to Dr. Griggs, “plankton, small fish, seabirds, whales, and dolphins congregate to share in the food.” It makes for a fascinating, lively mix, and a great opportunity to learn more about California’s fascinating and delicate ocean ecosystems.
Each year, between November and April, California grey whales make their annual migration from feeding grounds in Alaska south to mate and have babies in the warm coastal lagoons of Baja, Mexico. Along the way, the whales do a swim-by off the Mendocino Coast, offering an unforgettable chance to see the leviathans spouting, breaching and diving as they make their epic journey south.
"Book a spot on a whale-watching charter, or, if you’re feeling adventurous and waters are calm, rent kayaks."
High vantage points along the coast are good spots to spot whales, particularly on calm mornings. Favourite spots near town include coastal trails in Mendocino Headlands State Park and at Point Arena Lighthouse. For a closer look, book a spot on a whale-watching charter, or, if you’re feeling adventurous and waters are calm, rent kayaks.
Whales are such big news here that they even get their own fleet of festivals, with the towns of Mendocino, Little River and Fort Bragg all hosting special events, including walks, talks and special boat charters, in March.
Whether by land or by sea, San Diego is one of California’s best spots for whale watching. With just a pair of binoculars, you can spot whales from the high bluffs at Torrey Pines State Reserve and the Birch Aquarium at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, both in La Jolla about 20 minutes north of downtown San Diego. And near the historic lighthouse at Cabrillo National Monument, Whale Watch Lookout Point sits 420 feet/128 metres above the waves with a wide field of vision—perfect for spotting whales.
For closer looks, sign up for a whale watching cruise. A 3-hour trip with San Diego Whale Watch comes with a guarantee—if you don’t see either a whale or a dolphin, you can go out for free on another day. H&M Landing offers local gray whale tours December through March; in summer, join an H&M landing journey to the Coronado Islands, a protected marine sanctuary just southwest of San Diego in Mexican waters, to see spot blue whales, elephant seals, and orcas too.
If you want to see whales, head to the tip of Point Reyes National Seashore from December through February. According to whale experts, an astounding 94 percent of migrating Pacific gray whales pass within 1 mile/1.6 kilometres of this protected peninsula some 27 miles/43 km north of San Francisco. January is the most whale-happy month, when more than 1,000 whales can pass this point each day. Access to the tip of Point Reyes is controlled during peak season (December through March), with bus shuttles running between parking lots and prime viewing areas. Other watch-from-shore hot spots include the headlands in Montara and Half Moon Bay (both less than 45 minutes drive south of San Francisco). Or just head out to any high spot along the coast that juts into the Pacific. Calm days without whitecaps are best—that’s when it’s easiest to spot the whales’ telltale spouts.
Gray whale cruises (typically offered December through May) head out from San Francisco’s Pier 39, as well as Half Moon Bay and Santa Cruz. To see even more species, consider taking an unforgettable guided cruise to the remote, wildlife-rich Farallon Islands, a tiny chain of jagged rock outcrops 27 miles/43 kilometres off San Francisco. Waters here teem with life; 26 endangered or threatened species—including whales, birds, and marine life—live or visit the islands and surrounding waters. Blue and humpback whales regularly feed in the region summer through fall; whale watching cruises typically leave San Francisco at 8 a.m. and return by mid-afternoon.
Here’s one of those stars-aligning-just-right adventures you’ll never forget. In summer, when conditions are calm, experienced paddlers can take guided kayak tours into the open ocean off tiny Moss Landing, putting them smack-dab in the middle of the whale-watching action. Waters here, roughly 18 miles/29 kilometres north of Monterey, teem with wildlife. Climb into your kayak, paddle out, and watch the show, with humpbacks spouting, fluking, and even breaching all around.
Even if you don’t have paddling experience you can easily enjoy the show. Guided boat cruises also head out from the marina, where you can often see another marine mammal nosing about the docks—California sea otters. Whale-watching expeditions head out year-round.
Because of the cold, food-rich 1-mile-/1.6-km-deep Monterey submarine canyon just offshore, whales and marine mammals thrive here, making it an outstanding place to see whales year-round. You might also sporadically spot smaller cetaceans such as fin and minke whales, as well as orcas, dolphins, and porpoises throughout the year.
Numerous companies offer whale-watching tours departing from Fisherman’s Wharf. Learn more about what you’ll see with a visit to the outstanding Monterey Bay Aquarium. For prime whale-watching from land, drive south along the spectacular Big Sur Coast, where high points along Highway One provide great whale-viewing spots. On weekends in January and February, join ranger-led whale-watch programs at some of the region’s parks, including Garrapata, Andrew Molera, and Pfeiffer-Big Sur State Parks.
Join guided cruises out of Newport Harbour and Dana Point to explore remarkable marine habitat that’s home to huge numbers of whales, dolphins, and sea lions. The underwater Newport Canyon brings nutrient-rich waters close to shore, so you don’t have to travel very far before the show begins.
Prime time is during the annual migration of grey whales, December through April, though whales visit these waters year-round. May to October you might see blue whales, which can grow more than 31 metres long.
Some experts believe that Dana Point’s 61-metre-high cliffs serve as a landmark for migrating whales—making them a great place for humans to scan the seas for tell-tale blows. From Dana Point Harbour, Dana Wharf Sportfishing & Whale Watching offers narrated 2-hour long whale watching trips all year, some aboard a 20-metre catamaran. Captain Dave’s Dolphin and Whale-Watching Safari, also out of Dana Point, offers an underwater-viewing capability, so that you can see the marine beauties both as they jump out of the water and as they swim below the surface.
From Newport Harbour, Newport Landing Whale Watching offers cruises three times daily year-round. While whales may be your focus, hundreds of bottlenose dolphins often put on spectacular displays too. In Balboa, year-round, Davey’s Locker offers whale watching cruises several times a day year-round; they boast a 95-percent success rate of seeing blue whales, grey whales, dolphins, and other whale species.
Inside Tip: Celebrate cetaceans during the annual Dana Point Festival of Whales, a leviathan-sized March event with lectures, whale-watch outings, and a parade.
After marveling at the model of a giant blue whale in the Aquarium of the Pacific in Long Beach, go see the real thing on whale watching trips from the adjacent harbor, or head out from San Pedro to the west. Just offshore, you have a good chance to spot blue whales June through October and migrating gray whales December to mid-May. With luck, you’ll spy humpbacks and orcas too.
Near the aquarium, Harbor Breeze Yacht Charters and Cruises heads out in modern catamarans with stadium seating for daily whale watching cruises throughout the year. Listen to educators from the aquarium as they describe the marine life you’ll see along the coast, including common and bottlenose dolphins. In San Pedro, Spirit Cruises casts off for 2-hour tours in search of gray whales from January through March. Don’t see any whales? You’ll get a pass for another trip.
For spying whales from land, head about 9 miles/14 kilometres west of San Pedro to Point Vicente Interpretive Center. Perched on a rocky promontory along the scenic Palos Verdes Peninsula, this site is one of Southern California’s premier locations for viewing the gray whale migration from land. In the center, check out exhibits on gray whale natural history, including a life-size model of a calf. Observers from the American Cetacean Society use the center’s deck for their annual whale census.
Whale-watching tours that run between the Ventura coast and the Channel Islands are almost always eventful. Of the 78 species of whales, dolphins and porpoises in the world, 29 have been spotted near the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. Even if a grey, blue or humpback whale does not make an appearance, the tour boat captains can usually find a pod of dolphins—Common, Bottlenose or Risso’s, as well as rafts of sea lions. Every now and then, a school of flying fish soars right over the boat.
Grey whale season typically runs from late December until mid-April, when these 50-foot leviathans are making their annual migration from the Bering Sea to Mexico and back again. The summer months are the best times to see humpback whales and blue whales, which are attracted by abundant krill. Humpbacks are more common, but seeing a blue whale—the largest animal ever recorded on earth—is an experience you never forget. Measuring up to 90 feet long (the length of three buses), the blue whale can spray water from its blowhole nearly 30 feet in the air.